Automation class

flow.Automation is a class that provides the core functionality of Django Automations. To create an automation flow.Automation is subclassed with a list of properties of type flow.Node which are to executed one after the other.


Creating a subclass of flow.Automation is simple and similar to creating forms or models in Django. The order of the properties defines the order of execution. All nodes can be adapted using modifiers.


from automations import flow

this = flow.This()

class IssueDiscussion(flow.Automation):
    issue_list = models.IssueList

    start =         flow.Execute(this.publish_announcement)
    parallel =      flow.Split().Next(this.moderation).Next(this.warning).Next(this.conf_call)

    moderation =    flow.If(this.no_new_mails).Then(this.repeat)
    moderate =      flow.Form(forms.MailModeration).Group(name='Moderators')
    repeat =        (flow.If(this.moderation_deadline_reached)

    warning =       (flow.Execute(this.send_deadline_warning)

    conf_call =     flow.If(this.conf_call_this_week).Then(this.moderate_call).Else(this.join)
    moderate_call = flow.Execute(this.block_calendar)

    join          = flow.Join()
    evaluate      = flow.Execute(this.evaluate)
    end           = flow.End()

    def publish_announcement(self, task_instance):

    def no_new_mails(self, task_instance):
        # Do something to check mails
        return not new_mail_found


Note that each node has a name (start, parallel, …). Execution of the automation starts at the first node and continues node by node as long as no branches are set (.Next(), .Then(), or .Else() modifiers). Nodes need to have a name even if they are not the target of a branch.

It is customary to bracket nodes that continue over line breaks.

The .End() node denotes the end of the automation. Once it is reached the automation’s instances’ finished flag is set.

Short programs to execute are realized as methods which take one argument besides self: task is an instance of models.AutomationTaskModel and has access to the automations json data field through This is a convenience solution since it allows lambda expressions, e.g., as parameters for the If() node:

branch = (If(lambda x:'has_signed_contract', False))

Self-referencing can be achieved using the this instance of the This() object or by denoting the reference as string: "self.last_node" is equivalent to this.last_node.


The property names might shadow attributes or methods of the flow.Automations class. Avoid using existing names like id, data, save, etc. See the list below. Shadowing might lead to unexpected side-effects. Names beginning with underscore _ are reserved and not to used for nodes.

Here is a list of names to avoid:

  • broadcast_message

  • create_on_message

  • data

  • dispatch_message

  • finished

  • get_automation_class_name

  • get_key

  • get_model_instance

  • get_verbose_name

  • get_verbose_name_plural

  • id

  • kill

  • model_class

  • nice

  • on

  • on_signal

  • run

  • satisfies_data_requirements

  • save

  • send_message

  • unique

Automations are started when instantiated, e.g., by instance = IssueDiscussion(issue_list=this_weeks_list).


Parameters to the __init__ method are stored in the instance’s data json field. The values need to be json-serializable. the only exception are Django model instances. If a model instance is passed the id will be stored in the data field. Also, a property will be created where the respective instance of the model is available.

There are three special parameters when creating an instance:

  • automation denotes the models.AutomationModel instance to bind this automation to. Hence, not a new automation will be created but an existing automation instance will be created from the database data.

  • automation_id is an integer, denoting the id of an models.AutomationModel instance. The effect is the same as binding directly to the automation.

  • autorun is a boolean value indicating whether the execution shall start immediately when creating the instance. Its default is True. Set it False if you need to do additional initialization work.


The unique attribute is declared when subclassing flow.Automation. It takes either a boolean value or is a list or tuple of strings.

If True it makes the automation a singleton, i.e. only one instance can run at a time. If a singleton is instantiated and already an instance is running it will return this running instance.

If .unique is a list of strings it declares a set of parameters for the automation which are unique for any instance of it. Parameters of an automation instance are stored in its .data json field. For example, if you want to avoid sending the same e-mails to an email address multiple times, you can use unique = ('email', ) to only alow one instance of the automation per email.

.unique defaults to False.

Gives the id of the automation instance. It can be used, e.g., to send messages to this instance. Since it is an integer, it can easily serialized and, e.g., passed as a GET parameter.

Gives the automation instance’s data json field. It is a dictionary of json-serializable data: an instance of Django’s JSONField.

Saves the data field back to the database. This method needs to be called after modifying the .data attribute.

Starts the execution loop of the automation and runs until the automation

  1. Finishes

  2. Reaches a node which requires user interaction (subclass of flow.Flow())

  3. Reaches a node which requires waiting for a condition or a certain amount of time

Automations should only contain nodes that do not need more than a few milliseconds to reach one of these conditions. Complex algorithms are supposed to be coded in Python directly. If an automation needs to do complex calculations these calculations should use the threaded=True option fo the Execute() node.

run() returns the node at which one of the three conditions was reached.


Starts the execution loop in a new thread using Python’s threading library and returns immediately.


Returns True if the automation has finished, False if it is still running. Finished automations remain in the database for analytics.


Deletes the instance entry in models.AutomationModel.

This implies that the execution of the automation is stopped and its history and status are removed from the database. Use this method only if an instance has been created in error, e.g., if you detect invalid arguments after creation. Killing an instance is also removing it from all analytics.


To prematurely stop the execution of an automation consider using If() nodes to branch to an End() node. This makes the stopping condition explicit in the declaration of an automation.


Retrieves a unique key (hash) to be used to identify an automation instance. This has can be used as a key parameter to send messages if, e.g., a page is viewed. Just add ?key={{ atm.get_key }} to the page’s url.


Meta data on automations can be stored in a nested Meta class.

class MyAutomation(flow.Automation):
    class Meta:

Currently the following attributes are used.


This is a human-readable verbose name of the automation which can be used, e.g., in templates to refer the user to which automation she is for example filling a form.

If unset it will be Automation <<class__name>>.


Returns the verbose name set in the automation’s meta class, or, if unset, the standard verbose name "Automation <<class_name>>" and "Automations <<class_name>>", respectively.


specifies a Django template for rendering the dashboard content of this specififc Automation subclass. If not specified the standard template will be used: automations/includes/dashboard_item.html. A simple implementation is part of the module but may be overwritten in the projects template path.


If present this method returns a context dictionary to be added to the rendering context for the automation’s dashboard item. It gets passed a queryset of AutomationModel instances if the specific automation.


Automations can receive messages. Messages are used to update an automation instance once it has started, e.g., when a user visits a certain page of your Django project.

Also, messages can be used create an instance of an automation and start it.

Declaring receivers

To receive messages automations have to declare receivers. Receivers are special methods of an automation class. Messages are always received by instances (and not the class itself).

Receivers have names that begin with receive_ followed by the message name. They take three parameters: self, token, and data.

They have access to the automation’s data property using After updating receivers need to call to avoid changes to be lost.

token specifies either an expected action or specifics about the sender of the message. It is either None or of type str.

data is either a dictionary of additional information or - if called by a template tag or a CMS plugin - a request object. Receivers are not to change the dictionary and only to keep copies and not references to avoid side effects.


def receive_update_subscriber(self, token, data):
    if token == "subscribe":['subscriber_list'].append(data['details'])
    elif token == "unsubscribe":

This receiver can be sent the message "update_subscriber" and will require a token to specify the expected action.


If this attribute is set to True the receivers of an automation are supposed to be visible to the outside. For now this implies that CMS plugins offer the receivers in their forms. Messages can be sent despite the setting on .publish_receivers.

It is common practice not to define this attribute in base classes other classes inherit from to avoid receivers to be offered to users that are present only in base classes.

Sending messages

instance.send_message(message, token, data)

automation.send_message() sends the message message to the automation instance automation. Its class needs to have declared a receiver by providing a method named receive_<<message>> where <<message>> is to be replaced by the string message.

token is a string parameter which may be used to give the receiver additional information on, e.g., the sender or the specific content of the message. Sender and receiver are free to agree on its meaning. data typically is a dict of additional data passed to the receiver. The receiving part is supposed not to alter it and to make a copy of it if it is to be stored.

If the message is sent from a template tag or CMS plugin data is the request object.

classmethod Automation.dispatch_message(automation, message, token, data)

If the first parameter automation is an instance of an automation this is equivalent to automation.send_message(..). If automation is of type int it is interpreted as the id of the automation and the instance is created before it is sent the message. Hence this class method can be used as a shortcut if only an automation’s id is known.

classmethod Automation.create_on_message(message, token, data)

The class method creates an instance of the automation and immediately sends the message. If the automation is a singleton with respect to certain properties these property values must be given in the data dict or request object.

The message is sent before the automation’s run method is called the first time. This means the first Node will not have been executed yet.

classmethod Automation.broadcast_message(message, token, data)

The class method sends the message to all running instances of the automation. The order is undefined.

An instance can “catch” a message by returning the string "received". This will stop the broadcast and not all instances might get the message. All other return values do not influence the broadcast.

The class method returns a list of all return values. If the broadcast was caught then the last element in this list will be the string "received".



This decorator for receivers (i.e., methods the name of which starts with receive_) declares that the receiver needs certain parameters of certain type, e.g. email=str denotes that it requires an parameter named email which has the type str (string). The parameters must be present in the data dict or - if data is the request object - in the requests GET parameters.

If a sender does not provide the listed parameters the message will not be sent to the receiver in the first place. Using this decorator avoids that a message is sent if, e.g., the required GET parameters are not present.

classmethod Automation.satisfies_data_requirements(message, data)

This class method checks if data satisfies the declaration of require_data_parameters of the message receiver. If the receiver does not have required data parameters defined, it will return True.


work in progress

flow.This and flow.this

Nodes for an automation are specified as class attributes. To refer to other nodes in the definition of a node, Django automations offers two options:

  1. Reference by string literal: .Next("next_node") will continue the automation with the node named next_node

  2. Reference using the global This object instance this: .Next(this.next_node) refers to the Automation objects next_node attribute. Since the classes’ attributes are not accessible at definition time the this object buffers the reference. It is resolved when an instance is created and executed.

The this object serves to avoid unnecessary strings and keep the automation definition less bloated with strings. To use the global this instance use from automations.flow import this. Alternatively define your own app-specific this:

from automations import flow

this = flow.This()  # alternative to from automations.flow import this

class TestAutomation(flow.Automation):
    singleton = True

    start = flow.Execute(this.worker_job).Next( # this notation
    next = flow.Execute("self.worker_job").Next("self.start")  # alternative notation with string literals

    def worker_job(self, task_instance):

Alternatively, forward references can be denoted by a string starting with "self.". Both forms are equivalent and may be used interchangeably.

Node class


class flow.Node(*args, **kwargs)

Base class for all nodes. Nodes are only functional if bound to a flow.Automation subclass as attributes. Other than the description kwarg, *args and **kwargs are ignored. Node inherits from object.

Nodes use the concept of modifiers to come to a somewhat human readable syntax. Modifiers are methods that return self, the node’s instance. This implies that modifier be chained just as in Javascript. SomeNode().AsSoonAs(this.ready).Next(this.end) is a valid node with two modifiers.

flow.Node is never directly used in any automation, since it is a base class.

Modifiers for all subclasses of flow.Node

The flow.Node class defines the following modifiers common to all subclasses. Some subclasses, however, add specific modifiers for their use.


Sets the node to continue with after finishing this node. If omitted the automation continues with the chronologically next node of the class. .Next resembles a goto statement. .Next takes a string or a This object as a parameter. A string denotes the name of the next node. The this object allows for a different syntax. .Next("next_node") and this.next_node are equivalent.


Waits for condition before continuing the automation. If condition is False the automation is interrupted and condition is checked the next time the automation instance is run.

If condition is callable it will be called every time the condition needs to be evaluated.


stops the automation until the specific datetime has passed. Note that depending on how the scheduler runs the automation there might be a significant time slip between datetime and the real execution time. It is only guaranteed that the node is not executed before. datetime may be a callable.


stops the automation for a specific amount of time. This is roughly equivalent to .AfterWaitingUntil(lambda x: now()+timedelta). timedelta may be a callable.


Skips the current node if condition is truthy (i.e., bool(condition) evaluates to True) or evaluates to a truthy value. The node is left with "skipped" in the message field of the AutomationTaskModel.

The SkipIf() modifier is useful to skip, e.g., user interactions or sending emails under a certain condition.


Skips the current node timedelta after its creation. This modifier allows, e.g., to continue after a user interaction has not been received after a certain amount of time.


.SkipIf() and .SkipAfter() have precedence over waiting/pausing modifiers. If a node is skipped, e.g., it is not guaranteed that the condition of .AsSoonAs() is fulfilled. If the condition has to be fulfilled separate the modifiers and add them to different nodes.


References a JsonField of the node’s automation instance. Each instance of an automation can carry additional data in form of a JsonField. This data is shared by all nodes of the automation instance. The node’s attribute returns the common JsonField. Any changes in the field need to be saved using or they might be lost.

Attached model objects will be referenced by their id in the .data attribute. Beyond this the automation may use the data field to save its state in any way it prefers as long as the dict is json serializable. This excludes datetime objects or timedelta objects.


Can be used to provide information about the purpose of a Node. Set the description when defining properties within the automation, e.g.: start = flow.Execute(this.init, description="This is the first node in my automation")

Additional methods

Additional methods differ from modifiers since they do not return self.


Is called by the newly initialized Automation instance to bind the nodes to the instance. Typically, there is no need to call it from other apps.


Returns the (dotted) name of the Automation instance class the node is bound to. Automations are identified by this name.


Resolves the value to the node’s automation attribute if value is either a This object or a string with the name of a node’s automation attribute.


class flow.End

ends an automation. All finite automations need an .End() node. An automation instance that has ended cannot be executed. If you call its run method it will throw an error. As long as the automation is not a singleton you can of course at any time instantiate a new instance of the same automation which will run from the start.


class flow.Repeat(start=None)

allows for repetitive automations (which do not need an flow.End() node). The automation will resume at node given by the start argument, or - if omitted - from the first node.

The repetition pattern is described by modifiers:

Repeat.At(hour, minute)

for daily automations which need to run at a certain hour and minute each day.


for hourly automations or automations that need to run at an interval of hours hours, repeating based on the time the node initially executes.


for periodic automations that need to run at an interval of minutes minutes, repeating based on the time the node initially executes.


for periodic automations that need to run at an interval of days days, repeating based on the time the node initially executes.


for daily automations that need to run once each day, repeating based on the time the node initially executes.


class flow.Execute(func, threaded=False, *args, **kwargs)

runs a callable, typically a method of the automation. The method gets passed a parameter, called task_instance which is an instance of the AutomationTaskModel. It gives the method access to the processes json database.

The *args and **kwargs are passed to func. If the function returns a json-serializable result it will be stored in the task instance in the database.

Subclass flow.Execute to create your own executable nodes, e.g. class SendEMail(flow.Execute). Implement a method named method. It gets passed a task_instance and all parameters of the node.

flow.Execute has one specific modifier.


defines a node to continue with in case the Execute node fails with an exception. If no .OnError modifier is given the automation will stop if an error occurs. The error information is kept in the task instance in the database.


class flow.If(condition)

is a conditional node which needs at least the .Then() modifier and optionally can contain an .Else() modifier.


contains either a callable that is Executed (see flow.Execute) or a reference to another node where the automation is continued, if the condition is True.


specifies what is to be done in case the condition is False. If it is omitted the automation continues with the next node.


class flow.Split

spawns two or more paths which are to be executed independently. These nodes are given by one or more .Next() modifiers. (Example flow.Split().Next(this.path1).Next(this.path2).Next(this.path3)). These paths all need to end in the same flow.Join() node.


class flow.Join

stops the automation until all paths spawned by the same flow.Split() have arrived at this node.


class flow.SendMessage(target, message, token=None, data=None)

Sends a message to other (unfinished) automation instances. target can either be an int giving the automation id of the automation instance the message is sent to. It can be an Automation instance that receives the message, or it can be an Automation calls. Then the message is sent to all running instances of that class. The class can be replaced by a string with the dotted path to the class definition.

A message is nothing but a method of the receiving class called receive_<<message>>. This method will be called for the target instance giving the optional parameters token and data. Token typically is a string to define more specifically what the message is supposed to mean. data can be any python object.


The message is the same mechanism used by the template tags or CMS plugins to send a message when a specific page is rendered. If the message comes from the template tag or plugin data is the request object.


class flow.Form(form, template_name=None, description='', context={})

Represents a user interaction with a Django Form. The form’s class is passed as form. It will be rendered using the optional template_name. If template_name is not provided, Django automations looks for the default_template_name attribute of the automation class. Use the default_template_name attribute if all forms of an automation share the same template. If neither is given Django Automations will fall back to "automations/form_view.html".

Also optional is description, a text that explains what the user is expected to do with the form, e.g., validate its entries. The description can, e.g., be shown to a user when editing the form, or in her task list.

The form is redered by a Django FormView. Additional context for the template is provided by the FormView

  • project-wide using settings.ATM_FORM_VIEW_CONTEXT in the project’s settings file,

  • defining the context attribute for the whole Automation class, and

  • specifying the context parameter in an individual flow.Form.

The flow.Form has two extra modifiers to assign the task to a user or a group of users:


assigns the form to a single user who will have to process it. For the time being the user needs to be unique.


assigns the form to all members of a user group. Selectors typically are only id=1 or name="admins".


assigns the form to all users who have the permission given by a string dot-formatted: app_name.codename. app_name is the name of the Django app which provides the permission and codename is the permission’s name. An example could be my_app.add_mymodel. This permission allows an user to add an instance of My_App’s MyModel model. For details on permissions see Django’s Permission documentation. Multiple .Permission(str) modifiers can be added implying the a user would require all permissions requested.

If more than one modifier is given, .User, .Group, and .Permission have all to be satisfied. If a user loses a required group membership he cannot process the form any more. The same is true for permissions. Superusers can always process the form.

The automation will continue as soon as the form is submitted and validated, i.e. in the request response cycle. If you need to execute an action after this step consider using a threaded Execute() not to keep the user waiting for too long.


class flow.ModelForm(form, key, template_name=None, description='')

Represents a user interaction with a model. form needs to be a subclass of Django’s models.ModelForm. The model is fixed in the form’s Meta class (see Django’s ModelForm documentation)



Returns all automations in the current project (including those in dependencies if they are loaded). All modules or submodules named are searched. If the app parameter is given only app.automations is searched. Other submodules of app are ignored.

The result is a list of tuples, the first one being the automations dotted path, the second one its human readable name. It differs only from the path if verbose_name is set in the automations Meta subclass.


Because of the way Python’s sys checks for module modules names, automations (either the automation class or the file) must be imported somewhere within your project in order to be discoverable. Typically if you are using automations from within the project, it will already require imports, but if you are using an automation solely from the commandline, you can import its class in the AppConfig.ready() method within one of your project’s apps.


All automations share the same two models.


All automation instances share a Django model class called models.AutomationModel. To distinguish different automations each instance has a field automation_class which contains the dotted path to the declaration of the automation class.


This class method is to be called by the scheduler (e.g., through the management command ./ automation_step) regularly. It will check any unfinished automation instances and process them as appropriate.

classmethod models.AutomationModel.delete_history(days=30)

Deletes all history of automations finished longer than days ago. Once deleted, those automation instances will not be available for analysis any more.

models.AutomationModel.delete_history returns a tuple with two entries: The first is the number of deleted objects, the second a dictionary specifying how many automations and how many automation task objects have been deleted from the database.

This class method can be called through the management command ./ automation_delete_history


Regular deletion of the history keeps the database size from growing endlessly. It also might be required for privacy reasons. Alternatives include removing all person-related data from the automation.


models.AutomationModel.delete_history only affects the database not any instances of Automation objects.

All interactions with automations go through their classes and instances. Since the views provide querysets, templates use some additional automation model attributes and methods.


The automation_class field contains the dotted path to the automation class declaration.

data is as json field to store state information of the process it is shared between the tasks, i.e. later tasks see results of earlier tasks if they are retained in the data field. If a Django model is bound to an automation the data field will contain its bound instance id. Bound models are accessed through the automation instance not the automation model (see below).


The instance property yields the corresponding automation instance. It is often used in templates since the views provide querysets of the AutomationModel and access to bound Django models is through the automation instance. To avoid unnecessary instantiations keep the instance if it is needed more than once. In templates this is achieved using the {% with %} template tag.


Returns the class of an automation model instance without instantiating it. The class is imported and buffered in the model instance.


True if the automation instance is finished executing, False otherwise.


The automation task model stores start time, end time and result of each task executed. Open tasks have no end time assigned.

Execution errors are stored as task results. If not caught by .OnError an error will stop the task and automation.


DateTimeField when the task is first entered and created.


DateTimeField when the task was finished. This field is None for open tasks.


Name of the node corresponding to the task.


Short message on the result of the task.

  • OK for Execute() nodes which did execute without error. The result returned by the executed function is json serialized in result if possible.

  • skipped if execution did not happen after a .SkipIf() modifier

  • An error message (i.e., TypeError(...)) if an Execute() node did fail. result` will contain an dict with a key error that contains the traceback.


A json field with the result of an Execute() node. See above.


ForeignKey to the AutomationModel

Short for


returns a float indicating the number of hours since the task has been created and has not been finished. Once finished the method returns 0. This is useful if, e.g., the urgency of a task needs to be shown, e.g. by coloring the task item in the task list yellow or red.






Django Automations comes with simplistic templates. They are largely thought to be a reference for implementing your project-specific set of templates which probably include some more markup to adapt to your project’s look and feel.

All template can be replaced simply by offering alternatives in your project’s template folder. This is the structure:

└── automations
    ├── base.html
    ├── dashboard.html
    ├── form_view.html
    ├── includes
    │   ├── dashboard.html
    │   ├── dashboard_item.html
    │   ├── form_view.html
    │   ├── task_item.html
    │   └── task_list.html
    └── task_list.html

The templates can be replaced individually. It is not necessary (though certainly possible) to replicate the whole tree.

The templates in the includes subdirectory are also used by the Django-CMS plugins.


All other templates extend automation’s base template. Modify this template to bind into your project’s template hierarchy.


Literally an empty file. Only necessary for the Django-CMS plugin AutomationHook. The automation hook does not render anything by using this template.


This is a simple fall-back template if no templates are given in a Form() node. Ideally, you specify the correct template by note or process. See flow.Form.


This is the template used by the TaskListView.

Template tags

Management commands

python automation_step

This wrapper calls the class method which in turn lets all automations run which are not waiting for a response (filled form, other condition) or a certain point in time.

python automation_delete_history 14

This wrapper calls the class method models.AutomationModel.delete_history() which in turn deletes all automations older than the specified number of days. Defaults to 30 days if no argument is provided.

Settings in


The Form() nodes and its subclasses present the forms to the user using a Django FormView. This attribute is an dictionary which will be added to the template’s context when rendering. The dictionary items may be overwritten by an automation classes’ context attribute or by a node’s context parameter. Hence, this setting in practice is used to set default context elements.


If your project uses a different model than the built-in auth.Group model for grouping users (e.g. using a package like django-organizations or other custom groupings of users), use this setting to specify the model that will be used in place of auth.Group. The setting should be specified as app_label.Model, and defaults to auth.Group if not set in the project-level settings. See Non-standard Group and Permissions for additional details.


If your project uses non-standard permissions, specify a method for the Form Node that will return a QuerySet of Users based on a the list of Permission codename strings, the User, and Group within the Form Node itself. This setting should be a string of the dotted-path to the location of the replacement method. See Non-standard Group and Permissions for additional details.


If your project uses non-standard permissions, specify a method for the AutomationTaskModel that will return a QuerySet of Users based on a the list of Permission codename strings, the User, and Group within the model instance itself. This setting should be a string of the dotted-path to the location of the replacement method. See Non-standard Group and Permissions for additional details.


Either all or none of the following must be present in your project’s settings: ATM_GROUP_MODEL, ATM_USER_WITH_PERMISSIONS_FORM_METHOD, ATM_USER_WITH_PERMISSIONS_MODEL_METHOD. Setting only one or two will raise ImproperlyConfigured

Non-standard Group and Permissions

By default, Django Automations assumes your project uses Django’s default Group and Permission models, with their default associations to the User model (either auth.User or the model specified in settings.AUTH_USER_MODEL if you use a custom User model).

To provide flexibility for projects that group users in a non-standard way, Django Automations allows you to swap out the Group model and the two methods within the package that retrieve a QuerySet of users that should be allowed access based on the user, group, and permissions specified.

Getting users with access to Form Node instances

flow.Form contains a method for retrieving the users who have access to a given Form node. This method, which has access to a list of permission codenames (self._permissions), the assigned user(self._user), and assigned group (self._group), returns a QuerySet of users with applicable permissions that meet the requirements for access. The default method can be overridden in settings.ATM_USER_WITH_PERMISSIONS_FORM_METHOD.

The default method used within form.Flow:

def get_users_with_permission(self):
    from django.contrib.auth.models import Permission

    perm = Permission.objects.filter(codename__in=self._permissions)
    filter_args = Q(groups__permissions__in=perm) | Q(user_permissions__in=perm)
    if self._user is not None:
        filter_args = filter_args & Q(**self._user)
    if self._group is not None:
        filter_args = filter_args & Q(group_set__contains=self._group)
    users = User.objects.filter(filter_args).distinct()
    return users

Be sure to include the self argument in your replacement method definition and return a Queryset of users.

Getting users with access to AutomationTaskModel instances

AutomationTaskModel contains a model method for retrieving the users who have access to a given task. This method, which has access to a list of permission codenames (self.interaction_permissions), the assigned user (self.interaction_user), and assigned group (self.interaction_group), returns a QuerySet of users with applicable permissions that meet the requirements for access. The default method can be overridden in settings.ATM_USER_WITH_PERMISSIONS_MODEL_METHOD.

The default method used within AutomationTaskModel:

def get_users_with_permission(
    users = User.objects.all()
    for permission in self.interaction_permissions:
        users &= User.objects.with_perm(permission, include_superusers=False, backend=backend)
    if self.interaction_user is not None:
        users = users.filter(id=self.interaction_user_id)
    if self.interaction_group is not None:
        users = users.filter(groups=self.interaction_group)
    if include_superusers:
        users |= User.objects.filter(is_superuser=True)
    return users

Be sure to include the self, include_superusers, and backend arguments in your replacement method definition and return a Queryset of users. The value of backend can be modified to match the backend your project uses for authentication.

Django-CMS integration

The Django-CMS dependency is weak. Installing Django Automations will not require or trigger the installation of Django-CMS.


If you want to use Django Automations’s CMS plugins, be sure to include automations.cms_automations in your INSTALLED_APPS settings.

Alternatively pure Django users can use template tags instead.

CMS Plugins

Task List Plugin

class AutomationTaskList

This plugin shows all interactions required for automations to continue their work from the current user. It will never show tasks for the anonymous user (nobody logged in).

With this plugin the task list can be part of any CMS page. It is helpful if the user’s tasks are to be shown as a part of a page, say, a dashboard.

In the project settings a choice of template can be defined. CMS page authors can chose the appropriate template do adjust the plugin’s look and feel.

Status Plugin

class AutomationStatus

This plugin allows a user to see a detailed status of an automation instance. The automation instance is defined by a get parameter: key is an unique identifier for an automation instance.

Automations may chose to offer status templates. They have to be declared in the Automations Meta class:

class MyAutomation(flow.Automation):
    class Meta:
        status_template = "my_automation/status.html", _("Current status")
        issue_template = "my_automation/issues.html", _("Problem sheet")

Any property with a name that ends on _template in the automation’s Meta class is considered to be a template path for some sort of status view. For user friendliness a verbose name can be added. Once declared the plugin will offer all status templates.

The templates receive the automation instance in the context with the key automation and the corresponding automation model instance with the key automation_model.

Send Message Plugin

class AutomationHook

The automation hook does not display or render anything. Its purpose is to send a message to the automation, if a page is viewed. If on this page this plugin should be included. It offers all receiving automations and its receiver ports.

An automation declares an receiving slot by defining a method with a name starting with receive_, e.g., receive_add_participant_to_webinar. All such slots are open for the Send Message Plugin and the example will appear as “Add participant to webinar” (capitalized, and underscores replaced by spaces) if the Automation.publish_receivers is set to True.

The receiver will be passed an optional token and a data object which in this case is the request object.